This sections lists resources related to Paradigm4.

Paradigm4 is the company behind the open source SciDB project.

A “Big Data” Vision
by Michael Stonebraker, MIT 2013
• Intel held a national “beauty contest” to locate their next Science and Technology center
• MIT won, with a “Big Data” proposal — From160candidates
• $2.5M per year for 3-5 years plus 5 Intel scientists
• 20 PIs, half at MIT
Presentation|Download (.PDF):BIgDataVision.2013.Stonebreaker.pdf|2013|

The Architecture of SciDB
Michael Stonebraker, Paul Brown, Alex Poliakov, Suchi Raman
Paradigm4, Inc. 186 Third Avenue Waltham, MA 02451, 2011
SciDB is an open-source analytical database oriented toward the data management needs of scientists. As such it mixes statistical and linear algebra operations with data management ones, using a natural nested multi-dimensional array data model. We have been working on the code for two years, most recently with the help of venture capital backing. Release 11.06 (June 2011) is downloadable from our website (
This paper presents the main design decisions of SciDB. It focuses on our decisions concerning a high-level, SQL-like query language, the issues facing our query optimizer and executor and efficient storage management for arrays. The paper also discusses implementation of features not usually present in DBMSs, including version control, uncertainty and provenance.
Keywords :scientific data management, multi-dimensional array, statistics, linear algebra
in Proceeding SSDBM’11 Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on Scientific and statistical database management
Pages 1-16 Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg ©2011
Paper|Download (.PDF): The_Architecture_of_SciDB.pdf|2011|

SciDB A DBMS for Analytic Applications
by Michael Stonebraker, MIT 2009
-Application areas
-Why RDBMS Doesn’t Work Our partnership
-Status and future
Presentation|Download (.PDF):SciDB.2009.Stonebraker.pdf|2009|

Requirements for Science Data Bases and SciDB
Michael Stonebraker, MIT
Jacek Becla, SLAC
David Dewitt, Microsoft Kian-Tat Lim, SLAC
David Maier, Portland State University Oliver Ratzesberger, eBay, Inc. Stan Zdonik, Brown University
For the past year, we have been assembling requirements from a collection of scientific data base users from astronomy, particle physics, fusion, remote sensing, oceanography, and biology. The intent has been to specify a common set of requirements for a new science data base system, which we call SciDB. In addition, we have discovered that very complex business analytics share most of the same requirements as “big science”.
We have also constructed a partnership of companies to fund the development of SciDB, including eBay, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), Microsoft, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and Vertica. Lastly, we have identified two “lighthouse customers” (LSST and eBay) who will run the initial system, once it is constructed.
In this paper, we report on the requirements we have identified and briefly sketch some of the SciDB design.
In CIDR Perspectives 2009
Paper|Download (.PDF): SciDB-CIDR2009|2009|

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