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Using NoSQL for Ireland’s Online Tax Research Database.

by Roberto V. Zicari on May 2, 2016

“When the Institute began to look for a new platform, it became apparent that a relational database was not the best solution to effectively manage and deliver our XML content.”–Martin Lambe.

The Irish Tax Institute is the leading representative and educational body for Ireland’s AITI Chartered Tax Advisers (CTA) and is the only professional body exclusively dedicated to tax. One of their service is TaxFind – Ireland’s Leading Online Tax Research Database, offering Search to 200,000 pages of tax content, over 8,000 pages of Irish tax legislation, Irish Tax Institute tax technical papers, over 25 leading tax commentary publications, and 1000s of Irish Tax Review articles.

I did a joint interview with Martin Lambe, CEO of the Irish Tax Institute and Sam Herbert, Client Services Director at 67 Bricks.
Main topics of the interview are the data challenges they currently face, and the implementation of TaxFind using MarkLogic.


Q1. What are the main data challenges you currently have at the Irish Tax Institute?

Martin Lambe: The Irish Tax Institute moved its publication workflow to an XML-based process in 2009 and we have a large archive of valuable tax information contained in quite complex XML format. The main challenge was to find a solution that could store the repository of data (XML and other formats) and provide a simple search interface that directs users very quickly to the most relevant result. The “findability” of relevant content is crucial.

Q2. What is the TaxFind research database?

Martin Lambe: The Irish Tax Institute is the main provider of tax information in Ireland and TaxFind is the Institute’s online tax research database. TaxFind offers subscribers access to Irish tax legislation and guidance that includes tax technical papers from seminars and conferences, as well as over 30 tax commentary publications. It is used by thousands of CTAs in Ireland on a daily basis to assist in their tax research.

Q3. Who are the members that benefit from this TaxFind research database?

Martin Lambe: TaxFind serves the Chartered Tax Adviser (CTA) community in Ireland and other tax professionals such as those in the global accounting firms.

Q4. Why did you discard your previous implementation with a relational database system?

Martin Lambe: The previous database was literally creaking at the seams. Users were increasingly frustrated with difficulties accessing the database on different browsers and the old platform did not support mobile devices or tablets. When the Institute began to look for a new platform, it became apparent that a relational database was not the best solution to effectively manage and deliver our XML content. XML content stored in a NoSQL document database is indexed specifically for the search engine and this means the performance of our search engine and the relevancy of results is dramatically improved.

Q5. Why did you select MarkLogic`s NoSQL database platform?

Sam Herbert: MarkLogic is scalable to support fast querying across large amounts of data, it deals with XML content very well (and most of the tax data is either in XML, or in HTML that can be treated as XHTML), and has good searching. It is also a good environment to develop in – it has excellent documentation, and good tooling. It helps that it uses XQuery as one of its query languages, rather than a proprietary database-specific language.

Q6. Is SQL still important for you?

Sam Herbert: I don’t think it’s true to say that any particular type of technology is “important” to ITI – it’s all about how it can benefit users. From a 67 Bricks perspective, we work with relational databases, NoSQL databases, and graph databases depending on what shape the data is and what the needs are around querying it.

Q7 Why not choose an open source solution?

Sam Herbert: We’re using Open Source components in other parts of the system, and we’re keen on using Open Source where possible. However, for the data store, there aren’t any Open Source alternatives that have the combination of good scalability, good support for XML content, a standard query language, and powerful searching that we were looking for.

Q8. Can you tell us a bit about the architecture of the new implementation of the TaxFind research database

Sam Herbert: There are three major components:

– a frontend display and service layer written using the Play framework
– the MarkLogic data store
– a semantic enrichment component using Semaphore SmartLogic and the ITI taxonomy

The Play component is what users interact with – both for human users coming to the web site, and automated use of the web services. The bulk of the data retrieval and manipulation is done via a set of XQuery functions defined within the MarkLogic store. When new data is uploaded, it is processed within the Play code, enriched using Semaphore SmartLogic, and then stored in MarkLogic.

Q9. How do you manage to integrate Irish Tax Institute`s tax data, bringing together in excess of 300,000 pages of tax content including archive material in Word, PDF, XML and HTML?

Sam Herbert: The most complex part of the data is the XML content. These are very large XML files representing legislation, books, and other tax materials, that are inter-related in complex ways, and with a lot of deeply nested hierarchy. An important part of managing the data was splitting these into appropriately sized fragments, and then identifying the linking between different files – for example a piece of legislation will refer to other legislation, and commentary will refer to that legislation, and a new piece of legislation may supersede an earlier piece.

The non-XML content is larger in volume, but each individual document is smaller and is structurally simpler. Managing this content was largely a matter of loading it in and letting it be indexed.

Q10. How do you capture and digitize information in various formats and make it searchable?

Sam Herbert: Making it searchable is straightforward – it’s making it searchable in ways that support the expectations of the users that’s much more difficult.

A good search experience requires both subject matter expertise and good automated tests.

The basic search is using MarkLogic’s full text search. The next step was to work with tax experts within and outside the ITI to identify appropriate facets within the content with which to group the results – based on a combination of what the user requirements were and what was supported by the data.

There were additional complexities around weighting the search results to make the “best” results come at the top in as many circumstances as possible – for example, weighting terms within headings, weighting more recent content, weighting content based on its category so legislation is more important than commentary, and weighting content higher based on its popularity. The semantic enrichment based on tax terms from the ITI taxonomy also enhances the searching.

Q11. How do you ensure that this solution is scalable?

Sam Herbert: The solution is deployed to a load-balanced cluster using Amazon Web Services. The Play frontend is purely stateless REST. This means that we can scale to support more users easily by spinning up more servers – and using AWS makes this easy. Overall, using AWS has been a big win for us, in terms of being able to get servers running easily, being able to increase and decrease things like their memory size easily, and the various ancillary services it provides like DNS and load balancing. By making sure we can scale to support additional data, we can use MarkLogic effectively.


Martin Lambe is Chief Executive of the Irish Tax Institute. His previous role within the Institute was that of Director of Finance.

Sam Herbert is Client Services Director at 67 Bricks, a company that works with information owners (particularly publishers) who want to enrich their content to make it more structured, granular, flexible and reusable.
67 Bricks utilises its deep understanding of the content enrichment challenge to help publishers develop systems and capabilities to increase the value of their content. With expertise in XML, business analysis, semantic tagging and software development, 67 Bricks works closely with its clients to develop and implement content enrichment capabilities and enriched content digital products.


Irish Tax Institute


67 Bricks


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